Strategy, Policies and Guidelines

Altimeter Group’s six stage approach identifies the importance of aligning with business objectives, and ensuring business value is being created, in each stage.

Social Business Strategy and Social Media Strategy


A social media strategy lays out the channels, platforms, and tactics to support publishing, listening and engagement.

A social business strategy is the integration of social technologies and processes into business values, processes, and practices to build relationships and spark conversations inside and outside the organization, creating value and optimizing impact for customers and the business alike.

Altimeter’s definition of a Social Business Strategy: The set of visions, goals, plans, and resources that align social media initiatives with business objectives.

The most important criteria for a successful social business strategy are twofold: clear alignment with the strategic business goals of an organization AND organizational alignment and support that enables execution of that strategy.

The biggest cause of social strategy failure was the lack of alignment around business objectives.

Li, C. & Solis, B. (2013)

Throughout the above reading, there were two recurring themes identified as needing to be met to ensure the success of the social strategies:

  1. The importance of the strategies aligning with business objectives.
  2. The importance of organisational alignment to, and key executive support of, the strategies.

I’ve chosen to focus on the importance of the social business strategy and (by default as mentioned by Jeremy Scrivens “Social media strategy is a part of a Social Business Strategy – but not the other way around.”), the social media strategy needing to align with business objectives.

Stage 1: Planning

Using pilot programs to connect social media solutions to solving known business problems.

Stage 2: Presence

Whatever form the presence takes, ensure it will create business value by connecting to business objectives.

Stage 3: Engagement

Identify how to engage with customers in a way that impacts on speeding up their path to purchase, and in turn identifying which form of engagement will create the most business value.

Stage 4: Formalized

To minimise the risk of silos forming throughout the organisation when it comes to the coordination of social media processes and to ensure branding gaps are avoided, a coordinated approach to all social initiatives needs to be put in place. This will ensure all parts of the organisation are working towards the common objectives of the business.  This stage includes establishing the organisational wide governance, including policies, processes and training, to ensure all parts of the organisation follow a consistent approach.

Stage 5: Strategic

As part of this stage, the formation of a steering committee may take place. Part of the committee’s role is to ensure social media investments are aligned with business objectives.

Also part of this stage is integrating social operations out to business units and supporting social business initiatives specific to those units. This “… continues the journey to connect social with business goals by bringing the responsibility for social execution as close to the point of business value creation as possible.”  Li, C. & Solis, B. (2013).

Stage 6: Converged

Once convergence is achieved, a single business strategy process is put in place – there is no separate social business strategy. There is just one strategy which is one set of business objectives and outcomes.

Some of the challenges to implementing a successful Social Business strategy

Implementing a successful social business strategy could include challenging traditional organisational hierarchies, integrating the strategy into all parts of the business, moving away from just one team (traditionally the marketing team) having the responsibility for all things social. “…companies are benefitting from forming cross-functional steering groups … to broaden their enterprise-wide social capabilities.”  Weber, L.  (2011).


These cross-functional groups can be used to enhance collaboration between teams, and encourage communication between teams where traditionally, such collaboration and communication may not have occurred.


From an organisational perspective, this could constitute a major change in culture. The organisation’s management would need to be supportive of this cultural change and would need to embrace the change themselves – leading by example.  This too could represent a major cultural shift for the management team.  As noted in the Altimeter reading, only 52% of respondents agreed with the statement that “Top executives are informed, engaged, and aligned with our social strategy.”  And further that “Part of the challenge is that executives don’t understand social media’s potential for business impact – primarily because they have not experienced social media themselves.”


This could represent quite a challenge for more traditional management – they may need to change their style of management when it comes to social business and social media, including relaxing the more formal rules and adopting a more guiding style of leadership.


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Li, C. & Solis, B. (2013). The evolution of social business: Six stages of social business transformation. Altimeter Group. [online]

Weber, L. (2011). Building enterprise-wide engagement capability in Everywhere: Comprehensive digital business strategy for the social media era (pp. 59-86). Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Jeremy Scrivens YouTube clip Co-creating social & digital business from Inside Out not Outside In




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Communities of Practice (CoPs), Virtual Teams, and Social Networks


Pic from


Difference between Online Communities and Communities of Practice (CoPs)

Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.

Wenger, E. (2006).

The main difference between online communities and CoPs is that members of CoPs actively seek out like minded members based on a shared domain of interest, and build their relationships with other members to provide a vehicle for sharing knowledge and to learn from each other. They are true learning networks.

In comparison, while an online community may also consist of members who share a passion for something, their focus isn’t on learning from other members of the community. For example members of an online neighbourhood-watch community are interested in what is happening in their neighbourhood, the latest crime statistics, etc., but aren’t necessarily interested in learning anything new about their neighbourhood – rather they are part of the online community to monitor what is currently happening in their area.

Characteristics of CoPs

Also according to Wenger (2006), there are three crucial characteristics that define a CoP:

The Domain

The CoP has an identity defined by a shared domain of interest. Note that online communities could also share this characteristic, for example a group of car enthusiasts who share a love of vintage vehicles have a shared domain of interest.

The Community

The CoP may not necessarily work together on a daily basis, but they must interact and learn together.  Their members engage in joint activities and discussions, they actively help each other and share information and knowledge.  By contrast a group of people who enjoy going to the movies may wish to join an online community to share their reviews of movies amongst other movie buffs, but they are not a CoP as they are not actively learning from other members, rather just sharing their opinions, not actively collaborating.

The Practice

Members of a CoP are practitioners, who develop a shared practice, as opposed to, for example, a group of people who like reading books. Members of a CoP develop a shared repertoire of resources, experiences, stories.  Individual members contribute their knowledge to the shared pool, and they in turn learn from the knowledge of other members of the CoP.

virtual team

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Virtual Teams

Virtual teams may consist of members of an organisation who are separated geographically, so some members of the team may be in different cities to others, but together they still form a team. CoPs are another example of virtual team in that, due to their structure being knowledge-based as opposed to based on their position in the organisation, the members of the CoP may be on completely different levels of the organisation’s hierarchy.

A CoP also:

“Brings together experts from different fields – together in cooperation and collaboration.” Gelin, P. & Milusheva, M. (2011).


Differences between CoPs and other Organisational Teams

Timing & Knowledge Management

CoPs are generally responsible for long term development, looking ahead to the future and identifying knowledge which may be used to solve future problems that haven’t even been identified yet.

By contrast teams focus on a specific outcome, generally with specific timeframes, for example delivery of a project with budgetary and timing constraints.


Members of CoPs focus on collaboration with their fellow members and share a collective responsibility. However no one member has authority over another member – the hierarchal structure is flat with all members sharing the same level of authority within the CoP.

Teams generally have a team leader who guides and leads other members of the team and accepts responsibility for the management of the team members.

Social Networks (SNs) and how can they be of use to business

The HMI CoP as described in the Gelin, P. & Milusheva, M. (2011) reading, highlighted some of the benefits of SNs in business:

  • Members are united by a shared interest and the CoP is seen as one of the mechanisms to share that knowledge.
  • The CoP is an enabler of sharing the knowledge and best practices in an organisation.
  • The CoP created a space within the company to share product application and solution knowledge in addition to the traditional product features knowledge sharing.
  • Through the CoP, staff get to know about changes in policies that can help them to shape strategies in their own areas, e.g. sales staff used knowledge shared via the CoP about changes to marketing policies to help reshape their commercial strategy – i.e. the information was shared in a different manner, sharing that may not necessarily have happened without the HMI CoP.
  • Technical experts can debate possible new features and share their experience with customers.
  • There are opportunities within the CoP to exchange information about updates on products and solutions that are in planning or development phase.
  • As with many other social networks there is no externally imposed hierarchy; contributors are free to discuss issues without deadlines or the need for an immediate follow up. Virtual meetings are mostly friendly and informal.  Members feel comfortable sharing their views.
  • Solutions can be found quickly and with minimal new resources, by the members of the CoP cooperating and collaborating with each other.
  • Overall value for the company is created through the exchange of knowledge and best practices, and through cooperation to solve problems. Sharing reduces the waste of resources that can occur when people try to resolve the same problem separately. Prevents “re-inventing the wheel”.



Gelin, P. & Milusheva, M. (2011). The secrets of successful communities of practice: Real benefits from collaboration within social networks at Schneider ElectricGlobal Business and Organizational Excellence, 30(5), 6-18.

Wenger, E. (2006). Communities of practice: A brief introduction.




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Assessment Two – Social Media and Business Value Report


The organisation I have chosen for this assignment is the New Zealand Racing Board (NZRB) – which is the statutory body for all New Zealand racing and betting. In particular this assignment focuses on NZRB’s event information hub – TheRacesNZ – which is found at


Use of Technology

TheRacesNZ provides a hub for the more than 60 race clubs throughout the country to promote their events. Clubs update their event pages individually, TheRacesNZ provides a standardised format for displaying the information.

The racing industry is trying to attract a young audience base to come along and enjoy a day out at the races. The primary vehicle used to engage with this demographic is social media.

More than just a website, social media facilitates social networking and the creation of communication links between organizations and individuals important to its existence.

(McHaney, 2013).

As well as providing event information, TheRacesNZ also encourages people to become a Friend in return for which users receive access to competitions and prizes, the latest news on upcoming events, and early access to tickets for certain events.

Other social media activities take place on TheRacesNZ’s blog, Pinterest page, twitter updates @TheRacesNZ, photos uploaded from racing events to TheRacesNZ’s Instagram account, and there is a Facebook page.



The 4Cs

Cook's 4 Cs

Cook’s 4Cs


Communication between TheRacesNZ and its followers takes place via the blog and Pinterest (one way communication). Email direct marketing (e-DM) is also used to communicate directly with members – these email communications can be tailored to specific individual details based on the information provided when people have registered as a Friend of TheRacesNZ, (e.g. fashion tips for young, female racegoers who have previously attended a racing event).



Photos and videos shared via Instagram, Twitter and Facebook allows racegoers to share their experience at a racing event with their own group of friends. The Content Specialist is also able to share images captured at race meetings, with the wider audience via these social media platforms.


People are encouraged to collaborate with each other via the social media platforms by for example, messaging about the weather at a particular raceday saying how sunny it is to encourage others to come along;  they can also post photos of their location at the venue, crowd shots showing everyone having a great time, etc.


During and following the racing event, TheRacesNZ also post video clips and photos from the day and encourage others to do the same – tagging in their friends and sharing their experience. In effect, they are marketing the event to their broader networks and hopefully encouraging others to come along to a race meeting to experience the fun.

At selected racedays, people are encouraged to provide their email address for feedback.  Following the race meeting, an email is sent out with a link to the survey.  Everyone who completes the survey goes in the draw for a prize.  The feedback is collated and sent back to the racing clubs to use for future event planning.




Polices & Guidelines

To ensure a united look and feel across all social media content, TheRacesNZ has a Content Specialist who is responsible for monitoring all content prior to it being posted to any of TheRacesNZ social media platforms. Other members of TheRacesNZ team are encouraged to send through content, particularly photos and videos from actual race meetings they are attending.

The NZRB also has the following in place:

Social Media Guidelines

The Guidelines provide information for all employees and contractors who use social media sites where they identify themselves as being associated with NZRB. This ensures correct procedures are followed such as individuals including a disclaimer statement in their bio information e.g. “These are my personal views”.

The Guidelines also encourage all NZRB staff to take an active interest in the NZRB’s social media activity, encouraging everyone to monitor the social media landscape and forward any links to positive or negative remarks about the NZRB through to the Communications team.

Social Media Policy

The Policy details what is acceptable practice when using social media platforms and provides details about the use of social media sites for NZRB communication and promotional purposes. Even though different business units across NZRB may have their own social media presence, all content must meet NZRB corporate standards and those standards are documented in the social media policy.

Cisco’s S.O.C.I.A.L. approach

Using Cisco’s S.O.C.I.A.L. philosophy framework, these are the five areas as applied to TheRacesNZ’s social media presence:


Much like Cisco, NZRB actively encourages its employees to participate in social media – and as with Cisco, all employees are expected to do so within the guidelines of the Social Media Policy and the Social Media Guidelines.


NZRB employees are encouraged to actively monitor social media. While Cisco encourages their employees to directly engage with customers, NZRB Policy requests that any positive or negative feedback identified online, is referred via email to the NZRB Communications team.  This provides for a structured approach to responding to feedback (particularly negative feedback).


The Social Media Content Specialist is responsible for ensuring the quality of the social media online content is maintained at a high level at all times. This includes engaging with new members in a timely manner (e.g. individually acknowledging and welcoming new Friends of TheRacesNZ within 24 hours), ensuring the blog is kept up to date and relevant, e.g. as we move into winter racing, updating the Fashion tips to reflect the change of seasons, etc.


Key social metrics are monitored and measured regularly to identify what is popular with the audience and what may not be reaching the target audience.


Like Cisco, NZRB also actively look for both advocates and detractors of their business.  Social media provides a platform where those individuals can be identified and engaged with. Regular monitoring of feedback, comments posted online, etc. ensures the organisation is able to react quickly and effectively when dealing with both positive, but mainly, negative feedback.

Build relationships

Once a new Friend of TheRacesNZ has registered, they are contacted generally within 24 hours by the Content Specialist, acknowledging them as a new Friend.

All Instagram posts, tweets, Facebook comments, etc. which mention TheRacesNZ are also individually acknowledged. This is done to establish a real connection between followers and TheRacesNZ.

Facilitate processes

Providing the template for event information at TheRacesNZ allows all racing clubs, no matter whether they are run entirely by volunteers as is the case with many smaller clubs, or they are large organisations with their own dedicated marketing departments, to provide all of the relevant information in a consistent format.


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The 4Cs and S.O.C.I.A.L.

Cook's 4 Cs

Cook’s 4Cs

The 4Cs

Cook’s 4Cs approach provides a framework to categorise social software tools based on their actions rather than characteristics.

The model of Communication, Cooperation, Collaboration and Connection, provides a framework which can be used by businesses who are using Social Media, to establish their current structure and which tools will assist them to achieve any changes they may be considering.

Cook’s description of each of the 4Cs is as follows, along with some examples of social software tools for each:


Communication platforms are those that allow people to converse with others, either by text, image, voice or video, or a combination of these.

Examples:  blogs, discussion forums, text messaging, emails


Sharing software enables people to share content with others in structured and unstructured ways.

Examples:  social searches, cataloguing, bookmarking, media sharing


Collaboration tools encourage people to collaborate with each other on particular problems, directly and indirectly in both central and distributed ways.

Examples:  Wikis, shared documentation with version control applied


Networking technologies make it possible for people to make connections with and between both content and other people.

Examples:  social networking, tagging, syndication (RSS feeds)

Purposes of the framework

The framework can be used for a variety of purposes including helping to identify what type of structure is currently in place and following that, identifying the preferred social software footprint for the organisation to get the best results.  Once the current framework is identified, businesses can then make informed decisions on where to focus time and effort for the best results, and if necessary, make changes to their structure to align with the organisational objectives.  This framework can be used to support proposed organisational changes.

By applying tools and technologies, an organisation’s culture can be identified.  Depending on the objectives of the business, this framework then identifies specific tools which could be used to improve each aspect of the 4 Cs categories.

Cook's 4 Cs Social Software Technology Framework

Cook’s 4Cs Social Software Technology Framework

Why are the 4Cs important to Social media and social networking

The 4Cs provide a structured approach for businesses to identify their current organisational strengths and weaknesses; identify tools which will assist if any changes need to be made to the business.

Functional Building Blocks

By contrast, Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy and Silvestre (2011), provide a framework about social media that is made up of seven functional building blocks:

  1. Identity
  2. Conversations
  3. Sharing
  4. Presence
  5. Relationships
  6. Reputation
  7. Groups.

The focus of the honeycomb approach is to identify the Social Media functionality and the implications of the functionality, a different approach to that of Cook’s 4Cs framework.

What is Cisco’s S.O.C.I.A.L. approach

Cisco’s S.O.C.I.A.L. approach is the organisation’s philosophy on how they approach social media.  It provides processes and guidance for all employees on the expectations of how Cisco employees should approach the use of social media via policies, see Cisco Social Media policy for an example.

The S.O.C.I.A.L. philosophy’s framework is based around five areas:


The business actively encourages its employees to participate in social media – all employees are expected to do so within the guidelines of the Cisco Social Media Policy.


Cisco actively monitor social media to engage with customers and to identify the tone of the social messaging about their business out in the world of social media.  Listening is turned into business value by identifying the Action-Based Conversations (ABCs) and prioritising them.



Focus is on the quality of Cisco’s social conversations.  Their engagement process consists of The 5 Ws:

5 Ws


Key social metrics are measured and analysed as follows:



Cisco actively look for both advocates and detractors of their business.  Social media provides a platform where those individuals can be identified and engaged with.



Cook, N. (2008).  Enterprise 2.0:  How social software will change the future of work.  Hampshire:  Gower Publishing Ltd.

Gorman, G. E., & Pauleen, D. J. (2011). Personal Knowledge Management : Individual, Organizational and Social Perspectives. Farnham: Gower.

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Government and Social Media

“… social media tools in the public sector create opportunities to enhance transparency, communication, and collaboration in government…” (Mergel 2010).

What are the drivers and inhibiters of social media implementation and adoption in government?

Engagement with the People

Social Media provides opportunities for the government to engage with the people. In the past, the perception by many was that we only heard from politicians when it was close to election time. Savvy use of Social Media by government can change that perception by providing regular communication to the people and providing a means for people to reply, feedback, and comment on that communication.

Social Media is a good platform to provide transparency about political processes and decisions. If the public can read information about decisions and directly ask questions, that ability to communicate promotes a sense that politicians are being accountable.

Build Relationships

Using Social Media, political parties and politicians can raise their profiles – engage with their constituents and be more accessible to the public. People tend to vote for politicians they feel a connection to or empathy towards. Faces on television debates or billboards don’t provide that. Social Media profiles and blogs can be a portal for politician’s personalities to be expressed.

Twitter, Facebook and other forms of Social Media give people the opportunity (or perception thereof) that they are communicating directly with their government/politicians. They feel more connected to them as people – which could in turn, result in their vote.   Social Media provides the ability to ask direct questions and get answers. It is a more informal channel of communication which is more comfortable for a lot of people.

Mainstream Media

The immediacy of Social Media provides the ability for the government to take back control of information – or more specifically rectify or intercept misinformation – from mainstream media. While mainstream media tends to focus on the negative aspects of the government’s actions, Social Media can be used to inform the public about the positive stories – by sharing stories which may not reach mainstream but will be of interest to particular groups. For example, this recent blog post from the New Zealand Trade & Enterprise website (, describes the recent developments in E-commerce which should result in major trade opportunities for New Zealand exporters. This type of article may not necessarily make mainstream media headlines.

Risks associated with Social Media and Government

A robust Social Media strategy needs to be in place to address the following:

  • Who decides what is published on Social Media?
  • What policies in place to manage sensitive issues if raised via feedback posted online or in public forums?
  • If a feedback or public forum is provided, who will monitor and reply to questions raised in those forums in a timely manner.
  • How are negative or malicious posts managed?
  • Are the right people managing the Social Media pages?

As with small businesses and non-profits, Social Media information must be kept up to date and relevant. Not doing so could result in the loss of engagement with their audience.

“Public entities will get the most value from social media when they are clear about the purpose and the appropriateness of their involvement and have people using the technology wisely.”

Auditor-General’s overview – Learning from public entities’ use of social media. From

Another completely different use: Social Media as a communication tool in Civil Emergencies

Earlier this year, massive Winter Storm Jonas, hit the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. There was plenty of warning of the storm’s approach and digital communication including Social Media, was used to relay messages from US Federal, State and Local government agencies to the people.

See the article below for more information about how Social Media was used as a communication tool via

Earlier this year, massive Winter Storm Jonas, hit the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. There was plenty of warning of the storm’s approach and digital communication including Social Media, was used to relay messages from US Federal, State and Local government agencies to the people.

See the article below for more information about how Social Media was used as a communication tool via

“Here are a few highlights of GovDelivery clients successfully communicating with their audience, throughout the massive and dangerous winter storm:

By the Numbers

  • Over 550 storm-related messages were sent over the weekend to millions of US residents, via email, text message, and social media posting.
  • DC contacted over 12,000 residents who had signed up to be snow shoveling volunteers using email and text messages in English and Spanish. The “DC Resident Snow Team” was then given shoveling assignments — matching volunteers with areas in need.
  • The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) sent 165 messages containing everything from “be careful with portable heaters and carbon monoxide poisoning…” to “find a shelter near you.”
  • Maryland Police sent 15 safety messages all on Friday to an audience of over 11,000 people.
  • Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority sent 351 public transportation snow route updates
  • Maryland Enterprise sent 66 storm-related messages

Attention Grabbing Headlines

  • Arlington, Virginia: “Blizzard Update – stay where you are”
  • Arlington, Virginia Police Department: “I’m out so you don’t have to be!” – K9 Duke.
  • FEMA: “Be safe! Dress warm, check on neighbors, & take it slow shoveling.”
  • FEMA:”Every second counts: keep hydrants clear of snow & ice”
  • DC: “Unless you’re a first responder, you should not be behind the wheel during the storm. So we are urging all residents and visitors to get off the road, find safe shelter, and stay there.”

We want to send special appreciation to the state of Maryland. They managed their proactive communications with grace and poise— sending out regular messages to residents as each phase of the state emergency plan was being implemented, including what each phase consists of — preparation, transportation, what to do if you lose power, stay off the road, get help, recovery, and more.

Email notifications are just one part of GovDelivery’s communications offerings that public sector organizations around the world use every day. Text messaging and polling features allow government organizations to collect vital data from residents like whether or not they have power, requesting photos of shoveled walks or fire hydrants, and more.”


Mergel, I. (2010). The use of social media to dissolve knowledge silos in government. Accepted for publication in Public Administration Review


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